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Handling Sources

PRINCIPLES OF DOCUMENTATION

Any academic paper that presents the results of research requires documentation. So does any academic paper that quotes from a text studied in class, unless the instructor has specifically said that no documentation is necessary. The general rule, then, for all academic papers is: you must document every source from which you have drawn information, ideas, or direct quotations.

One reason this rule exists is that references give your readers the information they need to evaluate your work. In research papers, for example, references prove that your paper is supported by recent and classic work in your field, allow skeptical readers to examine your sources, and lead interested readers to works or sources they have not seen. In critical papers, references play a slightly different role, but they are still informative. For example, different editions of the same work have different page numbers; if your readers don't know what edition you are using, they can't look at the passages you cite to see if you are quoting them accurately and interpreting them correctly. Furthermore, translations of foreign works vary tremendously; your readers need to know what translator is affecting your interpretation of the work. Finally, editions of the works of famous authors (Chaucer, Shakespeare, Milton) vary not just in pagination but in transmission of the "original" text they present. Your readers need to know what editor has influenced the text you are using.

Another reason the rule exists is that proper documentation gives credit to the writing and research of other people. Failure to give this credit implies that all the information, ideas, and quotations in your paper are the products of work you have done (or famous works you have written) unassisted. The word for this implication is plagiarism, from the Latin for "kidnap." As the derivation suggests, plagiarism is a form of theft. There are, of course, degrees of theft: petty larceny, grand larceny, shoplifting, embezzling. There are also degrees of plagiarism: buying a term paper, retyping an article from a journal, copying sentences from a book without using quotation marks to set them off from your own prose, citing quotations without crediting them, paraphrasing words or ideas without saying where they come from ... and so on. The point is, plagiarism of all degrees is wrong. It is also a punishable offense at Marlboro.

In order to inform your readers and avoid plagiarism, you must know how and when to document a source.

WHAT TO DOCUMENT

A source must be documented if you:

  1. quote it verbatim,
  2. summarize a passage in your own words without quoting it,
  3. borrow wording as well as ideas from a passage (paraphrasing),
  4. cite somebody's opinion,
  5. paraphrase an argument or opinion that is not generally known,
  6. cite information or statistics that are not generally known,
  7. allude to statements not generally known (usually, very familiar quotations--Milton, Shakespeare, or Lincoln, for example--need not be documented. But recent quotations from press conferences must be documented, at least until they become familiar as well).

In circumstances 5, 6 and 7, it is necessary to determine what is generally known and what is not. For the most part, "general knowledge" comprises:

I

  • Information that is available to anyone with common sense. It is not necessary, for example, to document the statement that a nail can be driven into a piece of wood with a hammer.
  • Knowledge that most people gather from public education, conversation, and the media. Do not document such statements as:
    • "Columbus sailed for the New World the same year that the Jews were expelled from Spain."

      "Shakespeare was a contemporary of Elizabeth I."

  • General statements of fact. The following statements, for example, do not need documentation.
    • "India has a large population."

      "Inflation is hard on families with fixed incomes."

    Compare these statements with the more specific ones below, which do require documentation.

    • "The population of India in 1991 was 866,000,000."1

      "In 1980-1985, 6.5 million elderly people had to start work to supplement their social security incomes."2

  • Statements of fact or opinion known to everyone in a given field do not need documentation. When you start research on a paper, you frequently find you do not know what is general knowledge in that field. Gradually, however, you will see that certain facts and opinions appear frequently in your sources (without documentation); you may assume that these are generally known in the field, and you may cite them without documentation. For safety's sake, document everything else.

 

TECHNIQUES OF HANDLING SOURCES IN THE TEXT

It is difficult to learn how to incorporate sources into your argument gracefully. The best way to do it is to read a couple of well-written articles in your field, paying attention (temporarily) to how the authors handle their sources, rather than to what they are saying. The following rules, however, may help you avoid classic student errors.

1) When you paraphrase or summarize, do not organize your material according to your sources. Many students, confronted with three sources that cover the same subject, incorporate the material into their paper one source at a time. The resulting "synopsis" looks something like this:

Shakespeare dedicated his sonnets to the Earl of Southampton, his patron. Southampton was one of the glittering young men of the Elizabethan aristocracy, and his relationship with Shakespeare has given rise to speculation. (This is from source A.) Shakespeare dedicated his sonnets to his patron, the Earl of Southampton, who may very well have been homosexual. (This is from source B.) Shakespeare probably wrote about his own homosexual experience with the Earl of Southampton, his patron, in his sonnets. (This is from source C.)

Even paragraphs less woeful than the one above contain errors of this nature--which are repetition (we only need to be told once that Southampton was Shakespeare's patron), confusion (was Shakespeare's poetry influenced by his relationship with the Earl of Southampton or not?), and lack of development.

When you take information on the same subject from several sources, organize it in your head (or in your outline and draft) before you commit it to the page.

2) As a general rule, quote primary sources, and do not quote secondary sources.

The nature of a primary source is determined by the field of inquiry and is best demonstrated by example. The following sources "count" as primary:

Art

Individual works, artists' letters, journals, interviews

Literature, Philosophy

The literary or philosophical work(s) you are discussing (a Shakespeare play, a Faulkner novel, a Platonic dialogue, a Frye essay)

History, Political Science, Sociology, Anthropology, Psychology

Letters, diaries, contemporary newspaper accounts, interviews, speeches, case studies

Natural Sciences

Lab reports, experiments, original field work

You should quote primary sources to illustrate your points & substantiate your arguments. Do not expect readers to believe what you say unless you SHOW them that your assertions are accurate and can be proved.

For example:

  • If you are writing a paper on symbolism in Shakespeare, you should back up your assertions by showing the reader the passages in which the symbolism emerges.
  • If you are writing a paper about the miseries of the American Civil War, you should show your readers passages from soldiers' letters home to support your statements.
  • If you are writing a science paper, you must support your general conclusions by showing how your experiments worked in the lab.

A secondary source reports and analyzes the information contained in primary sources; your paper, for instance, is a secondary source. If you quote a secondary source, you are simply quoting somebody else's interpretation of primary sources, not taking the evidence from the sources themselves. This is usually not worth doing. Summarize instead, except under the following circumstances:

  • If you are refuting arguments, let the people whose arguments you are refuting condemn themselves out of their own mouths; quote exactly what they say, then go to work on their phrasing and ideas.
  • If two secondary sources disagree in their interpretations of an event or text, you may quote them to show where their opinions differ, if the exact wording of their arguments is important.
  • If a secondary source contains a memorable turn of phrase, you may quote it. (Don't do this too often.)

3) Never quote a secondary source (or a primary source either, for that matter) simply to show your reader how much research you have done. This is called padding, and it doesn't impress anybody who knows anything.

4) Never expect a quotation to stand on its own. Every quotation should support, amplify, or illustrate a point that you are making. This means that you must set up every quotation with an introductory phrase, then follow it with a sentence or two that reflects upon its significance in your argument. Thus, as a general rule, you should not begin or end a paragraph with a quotation.

5) Do not let your paper degenerate into a series of long quotations. This technique suggests that the information conveyed has traveled from your source to your screen without passing through your brain.

 

BASIC TECHNIQUES OF LAYING OUT QUOTATIONS IN THE TEXT

1) If you refer to the title of a source in the text, you must be sure to punctuate it correctly. The following rules apply to textual citations in both papers that use parenthetical references and papers that use footnotes. (The rules are different, however, in lists of works cited in papers that use parenthetical references. See the section entitled "Parenthetical References and Lists of Works Cited.")

Italicize (or underline) the titles of: books, newspapers, magazines, professional journals, plays, epic poems, movies, radio programs, television programs, long musical compositions, works of art.

"Put quotation marks around" the titles of: essays, articles, lyric poems, songs, chapters of books, short stories, episodes of radio and TV programs.

2) If you quote a passage that is longer than three typed lines:

  • Indent it five spaces (or one half inch) on both margins
  • DO NOT begin (or end) it with quotation marks
  • Single space it

3) If you quote more than three lines of poetry:

  • Indent it five spaces (or one half inch)
  • DO NOT begin (or end) it with quotation marks
  • Quote it as it appears on the page you take it from--that is, in verse. If you cannot fit a whole line into the space you have, indent the rest of the line ten spaces
  • Begin each line with a capital letter, if the poet did
  • Single space it

4) If you quote three or fewer lines of poetry, use slashes to indicate where the lines begin and end: "Of man's first disobedience, and the fruit/Of that forbidden tree, whose mortal taste/Brought death into the world and all our woe...." Punctuate the lines the way the poet did.

 

MECHANICS OF DOCUMENTATION AND DOCUMENTATION FORMATS

Marlboro College uses the Chicago Manual of Style system of documentation. This manual describes two kinds of documentary references: 1) footnotes and bibliographies; and 2) parenthetical references and lists of works cited. The system you use is determined by the field of study.

FIELD

 

CITATION REQUIREMENTS

Humanities (Literature, Philosophy, History, Art History)

Usually require footnotes and bibliographies

Social Sciences (Political Science, Sociology, Anthropology, Linguistics, Psychology, Environmental Science)

Usually require parenthetical references with lists of works cited

Natural Sciences (Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Computer Science)

Usually use parenthetical references, but sometimes use footnotes and bibliographies

When in doubt about which system to use, consult your instructor.

You will notice that the chapters that follow are organized according to system: the first covers the use of footnotes and bibliographies, the second parenthetical references and lists of works cited. Each of these chapters is meant to be complete unto itself: the repetition in the chapters is designed to save you work.

 



FOOTNOTES AND BIBLIOGRAPHIES

1. ITALICS VS. QUOTATION MARKS

When you use footnotes and bibliographies, italicize titles of long works and place the titles of short works in quotation marks, both in references and in the text. Specifically:

Italicize titles of books, newspapers, magazines, professional journals, plays, epic poems, movies, radio programs, television programs, albums, CD's, or tapes, long musical compositions, and works of art. (Before the advent of word processors, these titles were commonly underlined, and you may still use underlining if for some reason you cannot italicize them. It doesn't matter whether you choose to underline or to italicize, as long as you do one OR the other consistently.)

"Put quotation marks around" the titles of essays, articles, lyric poems, songs, chapters of books, short stories, and episodes of radio or television programs.

Examples:

My favorite Star Trek: The Next Generation episode is
"Mission at Farpoint." 

According to "Great Grilled Vegetables," an article which 
appeared in Cook's Illustrated, asparagus can be cooked in
butter.

2. FOOTNOTES

Layout of Footnotes

1. To avoid distracting the reader, place the number a half-line above the text, like this.1 This is called superscripting; it can be done very easily by a good word processor. Most word processors automatically superscript your numbers, provide a dividing line between your text and footnote, and allow you to format the footnote correctly.

2. DO NOT interrupt the sentence with a footnote number. Place the footnote number at the end of the quotation you are citing, or at the end of the sentence in which the quotation appears.

3. For short quotations you have incorporated into your text, place the footnote number after the period and quotation mark with which the quotation ends: "This represents a quotation of three lines or less."1 Remember: if the quotation does not END the sentence, place the footnote number after the period that DOES end the sentence. For instance: "This represents a quotation of three lines or less" that does not end a sentence.1

4. For quotations longer than four lines, you should place the footnote directly after the block quotation:

A prose quotation of two or more sentences which runs to four or more lines of text in a paper should be set off from the textas a "block quotation" like this. Single-space your block quotations, and indent them one tab space from both the left- and right-hand margins. Block quotations should not be enclosed in quotation marks. The footnote should appear at the end of the block.3

5. Begin your notes with number one, and number them consecutively by chapter if you are writing your Plan, or by paper for your course work and the portfolio.

6. Your notes may be placed at the bottom, or "foot," of the pages on which they appear in the text ("footnotes"), or they may be placed at the end of the paper, before the bibliography ("endnotes"). Either way is fine, but never combine the use of footnotes and endnotes in the same paper.

7. For both endnotes and footnotes, single space the notes themselves, but double space between them.

8. Each footnote or endnote number should be indented five spaces (equivalent to one tab space, or one half-inch). Like the footnote number in the text, the number in the endnote or footnote must be superscripted. Do not add punctuation after superscripting.

1

This is correct. The note's first line begins 
five spaces (one tab space) in from the left margin, 
and there is no punctuation after the superscripted number.

2. This is incorrect for three reasons. One, the note's
first line is not indented five spaces from the left 
margin; two, the number is not superscripted; and, 
three, a period has been inserted after the number.

 

First References and Subsequent References in Notes

The first time you refer to a work, the footnote must contain all the bibliographical information needed for a reader to find the source. The second and all subsequent times you refer to the work, you can use a briefer notation based on the author's last name and the work's title.

1

J. David Bolter, Turing's Man: Western Culture in
the Computer Age (Chapel Hill: The University of North 
Carolina Press, 1984), 58.

2

Glynda Hull, The Right to Literacy (New York: 
Modern Language Association of America, 1990), 243.

3

Bolter, Turing's Man, 78.

 

Using Ibid.

When notes to the same work follow each other without any intervening notes to other sources, it is correct to use Ibid. (an abbreviation of the Latin ibidem, "in the same place") instead of a short title. Note that Ibid. is capitalized, followed by a period (and a comma, if it is followed by a page number) and is neither underlined nor italicized. You may use Ibid. After either a first reference or a shortened reference. For instance, to continue the example above, citations 4 and 5 could follow from citation 3 in this way:

3

Bolter, Turing's Man, 78.

4

Ibid., 79.

5

Hull, Right to Literacy, 244.

 

Note that the "Ibid." in citation 4 in the above example refers to Bolter, not to Hull.

If you find that you are using Ibid. in most of your footnotes, give some thought to your research, as well as to the way you are presenting it. The repetition indicates that you are taking all your information from one source, which suggests that you have not investigated the subject thoroughly. If possible, address the problem by consulting more sources.

 

Using Parenthetical References to avoid Ibid.

In papers chiefly concerned with only one or two texts -- close readings or comparisons of literary works, for example -- footnotes are often cumbersome. In papers like these, you may use parenthetical references for the sources that are your primary concern--your primary sources--and use footnotes for your secondary sources. When you do this, you should footnote the first quotation or reference to the primary source in the usual manner, then alert the reader to your strategy. For example, if you are writing a paper about Kipling's The Jungle Books, the first reference to Kipling -- "O hear the call!--Good hunting all/That keep the Jungle Law,"1 - could be footnoted like this:

1

Rudyard Kipling, The Jungle Books, World's Classics 
(New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), 1. All future
references are to this edition and will be cited 
parenthetically in the text.

Subsequent references to the text may then be placed within parentheses in the text of the paper itself. For example, you may write, "The Law of the Jungle, which never orders anything without a reason, forbids every beast to eat Man except when he is killing to show his children how to kill..." (JB, 3). Note that the quotation marks go before the parenthetical citation, but that the period ending the sentence goes after the parenthetical citation.

Quoting a Primary Source Cited in a Secondary Source

Suppose you find an excerpt from a letter by Galileo quoted in a book on the history of science. Since the fundamental purpose of a footnote is to allow your reader to find your sources, you must indicated that you found the letter not in its original form, but in a secondary source. It is not necessary to mention the secondary source in the text of your paper, but it is necessary to make the source clear in the footnote and the bibliography. So, your reference to Galileo's letter in the text might look like this:

In a letter to the Grand Duchess Christina, Galileo 
writes, "This whole argument about the solar system is 
specious."

2

The footnote for this reference, though, would look like this:

2

Galileo to the Grand Duchess Christina, cited in Alfred
Jones, A Brief History of Science (New York: Pantheon, 
1975), 37.

Your bibliography would list only Jones's book - the source in which your reader could find the letter - without referring to Galileo.

 

3. BIBLIOGRAPHIES

Layout of Bibliography
  1. The bibliography goes at the end of your paper, after the end notes (if you have them).
  2. List entries alphabetically based on author's last name. Since alphabet determines order, do not number the entries in your bibliography.
  3. If you use a work that does not have an author (i.e., The Arthur Rackham Fairy Book), disregard the "the" or "a" that begins the title and insert it in the appropriate alphabetical place. (The Arthur Rackham Fairy Book , for example, should be inserted between a book by Anderson, Hans Christian and a book by Grimm, Jacob and Wilheim.)
  4. To emphasize the alphabetical order of the bibliography, do not indent the first line of your bibliographical entries, but do indent all subsequent lines. This is often referred to as a "hanging indent," and most word processors will allow you to do it easily. The resulting entries should look like this:
    Golub, Jeff, and NCTE Committee on Classroom Practices,
         eds. Focus on  Collaborative Learning. Classroom 
         Practices in Teaching English. Urbana, Ill: NCTE 
         Press, 1988.
       

 

CITATION FORMAT FOR BOOKS

The Basics

The basic model for a book citation appears below. All of the models that follow are simply variations on this theme.

Footnote:

1

First Middle Last, Title: Subtitle (Place: Press, 
Date), 25.

"First Middle Last" is the author's name. There is no punctuation mark between the subtitle and the parenthesis. There is also no "p." or "pp." before the page reference in the footnote.

Bibliography:

Last, First Middle. Title: Subtitle. Place: Press, Date.

The last name goes first only in the bibliography, not in the footnote. Book references in bibliographies contain no page numbers.

 

Variations on the Basic Theme

You may want to think of both the footnote and the bibliography entry as made up of four sections in which information can be placed, as in the model below. In the basic model, Section C is empty. Variations can occur in any section except Section B.

A

B

C

D

1First Middle Last,

Title: Subtitle

 

(Place: Press, Date), 25.

Last, First Middle.

Title: Subtitle.

 

Place: Press, Date, 25.

All variations from the basic model in the examples below are shown in boldface type. In your notes and bibliography, of course, they would not be.

 

Variations in Section A: Multiple Authors

If the book has two or three authors, all of their names appear in the order of address in the footnote. In the bibliography, however, the first name cited appears in reverse order. Nothing else in either the footnote or the bibliography changes from the basic model.

Footnote:

1

First Middle Last, The Second Author, and The 
Third Author, Title: Subtitle (Place: Press, Date), 25.

Bibliography Entry:

Last, First Middle, The Second Author, and The Third
    Author. Title: Subtitle. Place: Press, Date.

If the book has four or more authors, give the first author's name and reduce the rest to "and others" in the footnote; rescue these "others" from anonymity in the bibliography.

Footnote:

1

First Middle Last and others, Title: Subtitle 
(Place: Press, Date), 25.

Bibliography Entry:

Last, First Middle, The Second Author, The Third 
    Author, and The Fourth Author. Title: Subtitle.
    Place: Press, Date.

 

Variations in Section C: Editors, Translators, Editions, and Series

Information concerning editors, translators, publishing history and series is placed in Section C, between the title and the place, press and date. The material should appear in this order:

  1. Name of editor ("ed." in footnotes, "Edited by" in bibliography)
  2. Name of translator ("trans." in footnotes, "Translated by" in bibliography)
  3. Name of author of preface, introduction or foreword ("With a foreword by" in note and bibliography)
  4. Number of edition, if other than the first ("2d ed.," "3d ed.," etc., in both note and bibliography)
  5. Name of the series in which a book appears, followed by the volume number that the cited work represents in the series (Yale Studies in English, vol. 6).

Imagine the worst case possible. Say you use a source that comes from volume 29 of a 32-volume set. It is a second edition, and it has an editor, a translator, and a foreword with a named author. Your citation for this source would look like this:

Footnote:

1

First Middle Last, Title: Subtitle, ed. First 
Middle Last, trans. First Middle Last, with a 
foreword by First Middle Last, 2d ed., The 
Unitalicized Title of the Series, vol. 29 
(Place: Press, date), 25.

Bibliography Entry:

Last, First Middle. Title: Subtitle. Edited by First 
    Middle Last. Translated by First Middle Last. 
    With a foreword by First Middle Last. 2d ed. 
    The Unitalicized Title of The Series, vol. 29.
    Place: Press, Date.

Note that, even though it looks complicated, nothing has really changed in the basic model: information has only been added to Section C.

 

Variations in Section D: Reprinted Works

Reprint information is the only information besides the place, press and date that can appear within the parentheses in Section D (as opposed to new edition information, which always appears in Section C).

A reprint of a work is NOT a new edition of that work. A new edition has been modified in some way; a reprint, as its name implies, has merely been printed over again with no changes. Most paperback books are reprints of hardcover editions.

When you use a reprint, you must supply the original date of the book's publication; otherwise your reader will assume that the book was written the year the reprint was published. The error would be serious with the reprint of a nineteenth century work. References to a reprinted edition should look like this:

Footnote:

1

Old Author, Title: Subtitle, (Original Publication
Date: Place of Current Reprint: Press of Current
Reprint, Date of Current Reprint), 25.

Bibliography Entry:

Author, Old. Title: Subtitle. Place of Original 
     Publication: Press of Original Publication, 
     Original Publication Date; reprint, Place of
     Current Reprint: Press of Current Reprint, 
     Date of Current Reprint.

This may be easier to visualize by looking at a real example, like this one for a 1990 reprint of Kazuo Ishiguro's Remains of the Day, which was originally published in 1989:

Footnote:

1

Kazuo Ishiguro, The Remains of the Day, (1989: 
New York: Knopf, 1990), 37.

Bibliography Entry:

Ishiguro, Kazuo. The Remains of the Day. London: Faber,
    1989; reprint, New York: Knopf, 1990.

If you can't find the original place and press of publication on the back of the title page of your current edition, omit that information in the bibliography. Neveromit the date of original publication.

 

Special Cases

 

Editor as Author

If a work is compiled by an editor and authors' names are not supplied, cite the editor in the author position (in Section A), with the notation "ed.":

Footnote:

1

First Middle Last, ed., Title: Subtitle, (Place: 
Press, date), 25.

Bibliography Entry:

Last, First Middle, ed. Title: Subtitle. Place: Press, Date.

Citing Forewords, Introductions and Prefaces

If you refer in your paper specifically to a foreword, introduction or preface written by someone other than the author of the work - e.g., a foreword by a famous critic which precedes a novel by a famous author - cite the writer of the foreword (not the writer of the main text) in your note and bibliography:

Footnote:

1

Famous Critic, introduction to Title of Famous 
Author's Work, by Famous Author, (Place: Press, 
date), 25.

Bibliography Entry:

Critic, Famous. Introduction to Title of Famous 
    Author's Work, by Famous Author. Place: Press, 
    Date.

  

CITATION FORMAT FOR ARTICLES

 

The Basics

The basic rule to keep in mind when citing an article from a periodical source is that not all periodicals are the same. The Chicago Manual of Style uses slightly different formats for different types of periodicals: it is therefore important that you choose the format appropriate for the type of periodical in which the article you are using appears. All article citations, however, should include the following information when it is available:

  • Author's Name
  • "Title of Article"
  • Name of Periodical
  • Volume Number (note that it is not separated from the name of the periodical with a comma and is not in roman numerals)
  • page of citation ( do not use "p." or "pp."; in the bibliography entry, you must indicate the length of the article, either by giving all the page numbers for continuous articles, or by using the notation "ff." for articles in magazines)

The most common formats for article citations are given as models below: these should be appropriate for 99% of your article citations. Occasionally, you may find an article that does not quite fit into these formats, due, usually, to variations in the way the source is paginated or numbered. When in doubt about how to cite a particular article, consult your instructor.

Article in an Academic Journal

Footnote:

1

First Middle Last, "Title of Article," Academic 
Journal 14 (May 19xx): 12.

Bibliography Entry:

Last, First Middle. "Title of Article." Academic Journal
    14 (May 19xx): 1-12.

 

Article in a Magazine

Note the absence of a volume number in this example. Note also the order in which the date is cited. If the article carries over to many pages in the journal, cite the page on which it begins, followed by "ff."

Footnote:

1

First Middle Last, "Title of Article," Magazine, 
20 May 1993, 50.

Bibliography Entry:

Last, First Middle. "Title of Article." Magazine, 20 
     May 1993, 49ff.

 

Article in a Newspaper

Be sure to cite both the section and the page number.

Footnote:

1

First Middle Last, "Title of Article," Newspaper, 
27 March 1992, A23.

Bibliography Entry:

Last, First Middle. "Title of Article." Newspaper, 27 
     March 1992, A23.

 

Article in a Printed Encyclopedia (for citing online encyclopedias, see "Citation Format for Electronic Sources" below)

Note: Citations for encyclopedia articles use the abbreviation "s.v," which stands for the Latin "sub verbo" ("under the word"), to indicate the word or phrase under which the article may be looked up. In the examples below both the "s" and the "v" in the abbreviation are lower-case in footnotes (because they follow a comma, and not a terminal period); in bibliographies, however, the "s" should be capitalized -- "S.v." -- because the abbreviation does follow a terminal period.

Unsigned (Author's name does not appear at the end of the article - ignore initials)

Footnote:

1

Encyclopedia Britannica, 1912 ed., s.v. "Homer."

Bibliography Entry:

Encyclopedia Britannica, 1912 ed. S.v. "Homer."

Signed

Footnote:

1

Dictionary of the History of Ideas, 1975 ed., 
s.v. "Cosmology," by First Middle Last.

Bibliography Entry:

Dictionary of the History of Ideas, 1975 ed. S.v. 
     "Cosmology," by First Middle Last.

 

Article in a Collection of Articles

In both the notes and the bibliography, cite the article under the name of its author, not the name of the editor of the collection. Observe that the page numbers of the essay go before the place, press, and date in the bibliography, but not in the note.

Footnote:

1

Jane Q. Author, "Famous Essay," in Famous Essays 
I Have Known, ed. Joe Editor (Place: Press, Date), 20.

Bibliography Entry:

Author, Jane Q. "Famous Essay." In Famous Essays I 
     Have Known, ed. Joe Editor, 10-21. Place: Press, 
     Date.

 

CITATION FORMAT FOR ELECTRONIC SOURCES

 

The Basics

Electronic sources are growing faster than scholars can find conventions for citing them, so you should be aware that the rules for citing electronic sources change frequently. The citation formats for electronic sources acceptable at Marlboro are laid out below. Keep in mind that these formats stem from the same principles as book and article citations: you need to give your reader enough information to find the source you are using. So, when you access an electronic source, you should always make sure to record the following basic information:

  • For web, ftp, telnet and gopher sites, the address of the site (in Netscape or Internet Explorer, this will appear in the "Location" box, near the top of the browser window, and will usually begin with "http:" or "ftp:"; for gopher and telnet sites, be sure to preface the address with the words "telnet" or "gopher," so your reader will understand the means of access);
  • For e-mails, the address of the writer, and a location where the reader might find a copy of the e-mail (i.e., "available from Your Name" for personal e-mails; if the e-mail comes from a discussion list, note the name and address of the list);
  • The title of the website or discussion list on which you found the source (in Netscape or Internet Explorer, this usually appears in the top bar of the browser window);
  • The title of the specific article, subpage or list contribution to which you are referring;
  • The name of the author of the article, subpage or list contribution, when it is available;
  • For web, ftp, gopher and telnet sites, the date on which you accessed the piece; for e-mails, the date on which the e-mail was written.

Once you have this information, arrange it in the following way:

 

Citations for Web, FTP, Telnet and Gopher Sites

Footnote:

1

The Author, "Title of Article or Subpage," Title 
of List or Website, Address (Date of Access).

Bibliography Entry:

Author, The. "Title of Article or Subpage." Title of 
     List or Website. Address. Date of Access.

This may be easier to visualize with a real citation:

Footnote:

1

Gunnar Tomasson, "Anne Hath a Way," Five Notes on
Shakespeare, http://www.globescope.com/ws/will4.htm 
(26 Feb. 1996).

Bibliography Entry:

Tomasson, Gunnar. "Anne Hath a Way." Five Notes on 
     Shakespeare. http://www.globescope.com/ws/will4.htm. 
     26 Feb. 1996.

 

Citations for E-Mail from Discussion Lists

Footnote:

1

The Author, "Title of E-Mail," Title of Discussion
List, Address of Discussion List (Date E-mail was 
written).

Bibliography Entry:

Author, The. "Title of E-Mail." Title of Discussion 
     List. Address of Discussion List. Date E-mail was
     written.

 

Citations for Personal E-Mail

Footnote:

1

The Author, "Title of E-Mail" (Date E-mail was 
written).

Bibliography Entry:

Author, The. "Title of E-Mail." Date E-mail was written.
     Available from Your Name at your e-mail address.

 

Web Documents that Also Appear in Print

Often, internet documents are simply electronic reprints of documents that also appear in a print source - in an encyclopedia, for example, or a journal that publishes both in print and on the web. If this is the case, cite the document as if you found it in the print source, following the rules in the section entitled "Citation Formats for Articles."

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



PARENTHETICAL REFERENCES AND LIST OF WORKS CITED

This system is primarily for use in subjects in which the date of the source of information is of primary importance, and the exact page reference is of secondary importance. There are no footnotes or endnotes; there is, instead, a List of Works Cited to which the parenthetical references in the text lead the reader.

1. ITALICS VS. QUOTATION MARKS

As when using footnotes and bibliographies, the general rule in this system of documentation is to italicize titles of long works and place the titles of short works in quotation marks. References to these works in the body of the paper are the same as those described in "Basic Techniques of Laying Out Quotations" above.

 

Entries to the list of works cited, however, follow different rules of capitalization and punctuation from those applied within the text:

  • Italicize (or underline) the titles of books, newspapers, magazines, professional journals, plays, epic poems, movies, radio programs, television programs, long musical compositions, works of art that might appear in a book's title. Capitalize only the first word of the title, the first word after a colon, and proper nouns.

    Example:

    A pedagogy for liberation: Dialogues on transforming
    education.
  • Do not italicize or place within quotation marks the titles of magazine and journal articles. Capitalize only the first word of the title, the first word after a colon, and proper nouns.

    Example:

    The WPA's progress: A survey, story and commentary
    on the career patterns of writing program 
    administrators.
  • "Put quotation marks around" titles of encyclopedia articles (and nothing else).

     

2. PARENTHETICAL REFERENCES

The Basics

1. The parenthetical reference is composed of the author's name, the date, and the page number; a comma separates the date of publication and the page number. For example: (Author 1989, 89). The name cited as the author's should lead the reader to the correct reference in the list of works cited: it is not necessarily the name of the real author -- it might be an editor or a compiler. You can fill in the details in the more complete reference you will provide in the list of works cited.

2. Place the parenthetical reference at the end of the quotation you are citing, or at the end of the sentence in which your summary of its contents appears. DO NOT interrupt the sentence with a parenthetical reference if you can help it.

3. Incorporate parenthetical references into the punctuation of your sentence as follows:

"This represents a quotation of three lines or 
less" (Author 1989, 92).

 

This represents a reference to an important point made 
by Smith that is not quoted directly (Smith 1989, 89). 
This represents a further reference to a different part
of Smith's argument (90). As long as your references 
are all to the same source, you may simply cite page 
numbers without repeating Smith's name (95, 97). If you
refer to a new source, however, be sure to give the 
new author's name (Wesson 1988, 82).

Note that, in the examples above, the quotation marks precede the parenthetical reference and the period succeeds it. Be sure to use only one period. For block quotations, follow the model below:

This represents an indented quotation of more 
than three lines that requires a citation. You
will note that in this case the period comes 
before the parenthetical reference, at the end of
the quotation; after the reference, no punctuation
is needed. (Author 1989, 89)

 

Quoting a Primary Source Cited in a Secondary Source Using Parenthetical References

Suppose you find an excerpt from a letter by Galileo quoted in a book on the history of science. Since the fundamental purpose of a citation is to allow your reader to find your sources, you must indicated that you found the letter not in its original form, but in a secondary source. Your text and reference, then, might look like this:

In a letter to the Grand Duchess Christina, Galileo 
writes, "This whole argument about the solar system is
specious" (Galileo 1612, in Jones 1975, 32).

Your reference in the List of Works Cited should then look like this (note that it makes no reference to Galileo):

Jones, Alfred. 1975. A Brief History of Science. New 
    York: Pantheon.

 

Using Discursive Footnotes with Parenthetical References

If you wish to write a discursive footnote (that is, one which defines a term, elaborates on a secondary point, or extends or disputes the work of other researchers), put a superscript number at the end of the sentence and follow the procedures laid out in the "Layout of Footnotes" section above.

 

3. LIST OF WORKS CITED

The Basics

1. Alphabetize entries according to the names given in your parenthetical reference. Names of authors go in reverse order: Last, First Middle.

2. DO NOT number bibliographical entries.

3. To emphasize the authors' last names, DO NOT indent the first line of the bibliographical entry, but DO indent all subsequent lines. This is called a "hanging indent," and most word processors can do it for you.

4. The List of Works Cited goes at the end of the paper, after appendices and charts or graphs.

 

PARENTHETICAL REFERENCES AND WORKS CITED ENTRIES FOR BOOKS

The Basics

The most basic parenthetical reference looks like this:

(Last 1990, 25)

The most basic entry to the list of works cited looks like this:

Last, First Middle. 1990. Title: Subtitle which 
    contains many uncapitalized words. Place: Press.

 

Variations on the Basic Theme

All variations from the basic model in the examples below are shown in boldface type. In your notes and bibliography, of course, they would not be.

 

Multiple Authors

If the book has two or three authors, the last name of each is included in the parenthetical reference; the full names of all the authors are provided in the List of Works Cited. Note that there is no comma before the "and" and no comma after the last author's name in the parenthetical reference:

(Last, Two and Three 1978, 25)

Last, First Middle, Author Two, and Author Three. 
     1978. Title: Subtitle which contains many uncapitalized
     words. Place: Press.

If the book has four or more authors, reduce all authors other than the first to "others" in the reference: rescue them from anonymity in the List of Works Cited.

(Last and others 1978, 25)

Last, First Middle, Author Two, Author Three, and 
     Author Four. 1978 Title: Subtitle which contains
     many uncapitalized words. Place: Press.

 

Editors, Translators and Editions

Information concerning editors, translators and publishing history is not cited in the parenthetical references; it is given in the List of Works Cited. In the List of Works Cited entry, this information is placed between the title and the place and press, in this order:

  1. Name of editor, ("Edited by")
  2. Name of translator ("Translated by")
  3. Name of author of preface, introduction or foreword ("With a foreword by")
  4. Number of edition, if other than the first ("2d ed.," "3d ed.," etc.)
  5. Name of series in which the book appears, followed by the volume number the cited work represents in the series: Yale studies in English, vol. 6

Imagine the worst case possible. Say you use a source that comes from volume 29 of a 32-volume set. It is a second edition, and it has an editor, a translator, and a foreword with a named author. Your citation for this source would look like this:

(Last 1985, 23)

Last, First Middle. 1985. Title: Subtitle containing 
     many uncapitalized words. Edited by John Blue. 
     Translated by Juan Azul. With an introduction
     by Jean Bleu. 2d ed. Title of a series in 
     which only proper nouns are capitalized, vol.
     29. Place: Press.

 

Reprinted Works

A reprint of a work is NOT a new edition of that work. A new edition has been modified in some way; a reprint, as its name implies, has merely been printed over again with no changes. Most paperback books are reprints of hardcover editions.

When you use a reprint, you must supply the original date of the book's publication; otherwise your reader will assume that the book was written the year the reprint was published. This would be a serious error with a reprint of a nineteenth century work. You must use the reprint date in your parenthetical reference so your reader can find the page number to which you are referring. Your list of works cited should supply the complete publishing history of the work. References to a reprinted edition should look like this:

(Writer date of reprint, 45-6)

Writer, Longdead. Date of Reprint. Title: Subtitle 
     with many uncapitalized words. Place of Original
     Publication: Press of Original Publication, 
     Original Date; reprint, Current Place: 
     Current Press (page references are to 
     reprint edition).

This may be easier to visualize by looking at a real example, like this one for a 1990 reprint of Kazuo Ishiguro's Remains of the Day, which was originally published in 1989:

(Ishiguro 1990, 35)

Ishiguro, Kazuo. 1990. The remains of the day. London:
     Faber, 1989; reprint, New York: Knopf 
     (page references are to reprint edition).

If you can't find the original place and press of publication on the back of the title page of your current edition, omit that information in the bibliography. Neveromit the date of original publication.

 

Special Cases

Editor as Author

When you do not know the name of the author of a work, but you do know the name of the editor or compiler of the source in which that work appears, cite the editor in the author position in your List of Works Cited, with the notation "ed.":

(Last 1990, 23)

Last, First Middle, ed. 1990. Title: Wordy 
     subtitle. Place: Press.

 

Citing Forewords, Introductions and Prefaces

If you refer in your paper specifically to a foreword, introduction or preface written by someone other than the author of the work - e.g., a foreword by a famous scientist which precedes a book by an even more famous scientist - cite the writer of the foreword -- not the writer of the main text -- in both the parenthetical reference and the List of Works Cited:

(Scientist 1990, 23)

Scientist, Famous. 1990. Foreword to Complete 
    works of Einstein, by Albert Einstein. 
     Place: Press.

 

 

PARENTHETICAL REFERENCES AND WORKS CITED ENTRIES FOR ARTICLES

The Basics

The basic rule to keep in mind when citing an article from a periodical source is that not all periodicals are the same. The Chicago Manual of Style uses slightly different formats for different types of periodicals: it is therefore important that you choose the format appropriate for the type of periodical in which the article you are using appears. All article citations, however, should include the following information when it is available:

  • Author's Name
  • Title of article (no quotation marks)
  • Name of periodical
  • Volume Number (note that it is not separated from the name of the periodical with a comma and is not in roman numerals)
  • page of citation (do not use "p." or "pp."; in the Works Cited entry, you must cite all the page numbers on which the article appears)

The most common formats for article citations are given as models below: these should be appropriate for 99% of your article citations. Occasionally, you may find an article that does not quite fit into these formats, due, usually, to variations in the way the source is paginated or numbered. When in doubt about how to cite a particular article, consult your instructor.

 

Article in an Academic Journal

(Last 1996, 180)

Last, First Middle. Title of the article. 1996. 
     Title of the journal volume (Month or Season): 
     175-190.

A real example:

(Jackson 1979, 180)

Jackson, Richard. 1979. Running down the up-escalator: 
     Regional inequality in Papua New Guinea. Australian
     Geographer 14 (May): 175-84.

 

Article in a Magazine

Note the formatting of the date.

(Last 1995, 7)

Last, First Middle. 1995. Title of the article. Title 
     of the magazine 20 October, 7-12.

Article in a Newspaper

(Last 1994, section page)

Last, First Middle. 1994. Title of the newspaper 
     article. Title of the newspaper itself. 27 March, 
     E34.

 

Article in a Printed Encyclopedia (for citing online encyclopedias, see "Parenthetical References and Works Cited Entries for Electronic Sources" below)

Note: Citations for encyclopedia articles use the abbreviation "s.v," which stands for the Latin "sub verbo" ("under the word"), to indicate the word or phrase under which the article may be looked up. Please note in the examples below that the "s" should be capitalized -- "S.v." -- in the List of Works Cited.

Unsigned (no author given -- ignore initials)

(Title of encyclopedia 1975)

Title of encyclopedia, 1975 ed. S.v. "What you 
     looked up."

Signed

(One and Two, 1991)

One, Writer and Writer Two, eds. 1991. Title of 
     encyclopedia. Place: press. S.v. "What you 
     looked up" by Writer of Article.

 

 Article in a Collection of Articles

In both the parenthetical reference and the list of works cited, cite the article under the name of its author, not the name of the editor of the collection.

(Author 1991, 218)

Author, The.  1991. Title of the essay.  In Famous essays
     I have known, edited by Joe Editor, 216-242.  
     Place: press. 

 

 

PARENTHETICAL REFERENCES AND WORKS CITED ENTRIES FOR ELECTRONIC SOURCES

The Basics

Electronic sources are growing faster than scholars can find conventions for citing them, so you should be aware that the rules for citing electronic sources change frequently. The citation formats for electronic sources acceptable at Marlboro are laid out below. Keep in mind that these formats stem from the same principles as book and article citations: you need to give your reader enough information to find the source you are using. So, when you access an electronic source, you should always make sure to record the following basic information:

  • For web, ftp, telnet and gopher sites, the address of the site (in Netscape or Internet Explorer, this will appear in the "Location" box, near the top of the browser window, and will usually begin with "http:" or "ftp:"; for gopher and telnet sites, be sure to preface the address with the words "telnet" or "gopher," so your reader will understand the means of access);
  • For e-mails, the address of the writer, and a location where the reader might find a copy of the e-mail (i.e., "available from Your Name" for personal e-mails; if the e-mail comes from a discussion list, note the name and address of the list);
  • The title of the website or discussion list on which you found the source (in Netscape or Internet Explorer, this usually appears in the top bar of the browser window);
  • The title of the specific article, subpage or list contribution to which you are referring;
  • The name of the author of the article, subpage or list contribution, when it is available;
  • For web, ftp, gopher and telnet sites, the date on which you accessed the piece; for e-mails, the date on which the e-mail was written.

     

Once you have this information, arrange it in the following way:

 

Citations for Web, FTP, Telnet and Gopher Sites

Websites are usually not paginated, and are not always dated. If this is true of a website you consult, give the author and date of access in the parenthetical reference. If you cannot find the name of the author, write a parenthetical reference that leads your reader to the citation in the list of works cited in the briefest possible way.

(Author 1998)

Author, The. Date of Access. "Title of article or 
     subpage." Title of list or website. Address.

This may be easier to visualize with a real citation:

(Tomasson 1996)

Tomasson, Gunnar. 26 February 1996. "Anne hath a way." 
     Five notes on Shakespeare. http://www.globescope.
     com/ws/will4.htm.

 

Citations for E-Mail from Discussion Lists

(Author Date E-mail was written)

Author, The. Date e-mail was written. "Title of
     e-mail." Title of discussion list. Address of 
     Discussion List. 

 

Citations for Personal E-Mail

(Author Date E-mail was written)

Author, The. Date e-mail was written. "Title of 
     e-mail." Available from Your Name at your e-mail 
     address.

 

Web Documents that Also Appear in Print

Often, internet documents are simply electronic reprints of documents that also appear in a print source - in an encyclopedia, for example, or a journal that publishes both in print and on the web. If this is the case, cite the document as if you found it in the print source, following the rules in the section entitled "Citations and Works Cited Entries for Articles."